By Peter M. Kuhn
MPEG-4 is the multimedia general for combining interactivity, traditional and artificial electronic video, audio and computer-graphics. general functions are: web, video conferencing, cellular videophones, multimedia cooperative paintings, teleteaching and video games. With MPEG-4 your next step from block-based video (ISO/IEC MPEG-1, MPEG-2, CCITT H.261, ITU-T H.263) to arbitrarily-shaped visible gadgets is taken. this important step calls for a brand new method for approach research and layout to fulfill the significantly better flexibility of MPEG-4.
movement estimation is a critical a part of MPEG-1/2/4 and H.261/H.263 video compression criteria and has attracted a lot realization in learn and undefined, for the next purposes: it's computationally the main not easy set of rules of a video encoder (about 60-80% of the whole computation time), it has a excessive influence at the visible caliber of a video encoder, and it isn't standardized, hence being open to pageant.
Algorithms, Complexity research, and VLSI Architectures for MPEG-4Motion Estimation covers intimately each step within the layout of a MPEG-1/2/4 or H.261/H.263 compliant video encoder:
- Fast movement estimation algorithms
- Complexity research instruments
- Detailed complexity research of a software program implementation of MPEG-4 video
- Complexity and visible caliber research of speedy movement estimation algorithms inside MPEG-4
- Design area on movement estimation VLSI architectures
- Detailed VLSI layout examples of (1) a excessive throughput and (2) a low-power MPEG-4 movement estimator.
Algorithms, Complexity research and VLSI Architectures for MPEG-4Motion Estimation is a crucial creation to various algorithmic, architectural and process layout features of the multimedia commonplace MPEG-4. As such, all researchers, scholars and practitioners operating in picture processing, video coding or procedure and VLSI layout will locate this e-book of interest.
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Additional resources for Algorithms, Complexity Analysis and VLSI Architectures for MPEG-4 Motion Estimation
A similar hierarchical motion estimation with very low computational complexity, using a binary pyramid with 3-scale tilings was presented by [Song 98]. This algorithm is reported to result in a PSNR drop of about 1 dB compared to full-search. [Le 98] reduced the luminance component of the search area and of the current block to a I-bit binary representation using morphological filters. The morphological external gradient and the morphological internal gradient are used as morphological filters.
The MAE tends to overemphasize small differences over large differences, and may therefore cause in some cases suboptimal results in terms of convergence offast ME algorithms and MV accuracy, compared to the more complex MSE [Ghar 90]. 24) (dx,dy) E R = - SAD (Sum of Absolute Differences) For practical purposes the constant division by N· N in eq. 26) SAD summation truncation Typical sequential implementations of the SAD calculation iterate over every single pixel ofthe MB. The computational complexity of the SAD calculation can be reduced significantly by stopping the SAD calculation, when the current interim SAD value is higher than the minimum SAD calculated so far [Kap 85].
And 3. with a pel distance of2 pel and I pel respectively. 47) [Sauer 96] described a hierarchical projection-matching with decreasing search radii, where the ideas of hierarchical motion estimation [Bier 86] were applied to projection matching. The RPM method is similar to PTSS, but performs exhaustive search in contrast to subsampling of the motion displacement space. It only calculates one integral projection at every hierarchy level instead of9. The procedure is: 1. Calculate H) k(m) and V) k(m) ofa2Nx2Nblock,centeredattheNxN currentblockandcalculatd HI k_l(m) and VI k_l(m)forthe(2N+2sl) x (2N+2sl) reference block, which is scaled for NxN block size.