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By D. M. Bose, S.N. Sen, B. V. Subbarayappa

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The oldest name of this fourth Veda was probably Atharvangirasab. 'c Originally, both the words 'atharvan' and' aligiras' meant fire-priest, the fire-cult playing an important role in the daily life of the Indian people in much the same way as it did in the case of the ancient Persians. The two terms further signified two different species of magic formulas; the atharvan referred to holy magic bringing about happiness and the angiras to hostile sorcery or black magic. The Atharvan songs and spells concerning healing of diseases throw important light on the oldest system of Indian medical sci~ce.

23 fr. C. gveda, while Hermann Jacobi b and B. G. C. C. a, Indra and Nasatyau. C. 'e THE VEDANGAS, THE SOTRAS AND THE ORIGIN OF SANSKRIT SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE We now come to another important group of literature, the Vedarigas, which deal separately with six special branches of knowledge, viz. f These branches of study arose within the Vedic schools themselves as a necessary condition for mastering the Vedas. Being works of human specialists, these are called Vedangas or auxiliary sciences of the Veda.

L JAR, 1964-65. tI Allchin (B. ), p. 183. m Sankalia and Dco. f JAR, 1957-58; see also Sankalia, Subbarao and Deo. n Deo and Ansari. C. for sample P-1476 is questionable. 11 JAR, 1954-55; see a/so Thapar (2). b A CONCISE HISTORY OF SCIENCE IN INDIA 12 also with the upper neolithic phase of Karnatak. Stone axes, perforated ring-stone, a stone blade industry and a coarse grey pottery form the cultural complex of the fi rst phase. In the second phase represented by Daimabad II and Prakash lA, copper knife blades, a fine reddish-brown ware and Malwa type spouted wares appear.

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